If you’re not aware of Amazon VPC Service, I’d suggest you to read What is Amazon VPC? before going through the FAQ.

  • Amazon VPC lets you provision a logically isolated section of the Amazon Web Services (AWS) cloud where you can launch AWS resources in a virtual network that you define. You can create a public-facing subnet for your web servers that have access to the Internet, and place your backend systems such as databases or application servers in a private-facing subnet with no Internet access. You can leverage multiple layers of security, including security groups and network access control lists, to help control access to Amazon EC2 instances in each subnet.

  • Amazon VPC comprises a variety of objects that will be familiar to customers with existing networks:

    • A Virtual Private Cloud: A logically isolated virtual network in the AWS cloud. You define a VPC’s IP address space from ranges you select.
    • Subnet: A segment of a VPC’s IP address range where you can place groups of isolated resources.
    • Internet Gateway: The Amazon VPC side of a connection to the public Internet.
    • NAT Gateway: A highly available, managed Network Address Translation (NAT) service for your resources in a private subnet to access the Internet.
    • Virtual private gateway: The Amazon VPC side of a VPN connection.
    • Peering Connection: A peering connection enables you to route traffic via private IP addresses between two peered VPCs.
    • VPC Endpoints: Enables private connectivity to services hosted in AWS, from within your VPC without using an Internet Gateway, VPN, Network Address Translation (NAT) devices, or firewall proxies.
    • Egress-only Internet Gateway: A stateful gateway to provide egress only access for IPv6 traffic from the VPC to the Internet.

  • Amazon VPC enables you to build a virtual network in the AWS cloud - no VPNs, hardware, or physical datacenters required.

  • VPC endpoints enable you to privately connect your VPC to services hosted on AWS without requiring an Internet gateway, a NAT device, VPN, or firewall proxies. Endpoints are horizontally scalable and highly available virtual devices that allow communication between instances in your VPC and AWS services. Amazon VPC offers two different types of endpoints: gateway type endpoints and interface type endpoints.

    • Gateway type endpoints are available only for AWS services including S3 and DynamoDB. These endpoints will add an entry to your route table you selected and route the traffic to the supported services through Amazon’s private network.

    • Interface type endpoints provide private connectivity to services powered by PrivateLink, being AWS services, your own services or SaaS solutions, and supports connectivity over Direct Connect. More AWS and SaaS solutions will be supported by these endpoints in the future. Please refer to VPC Pricing for the price of interface type endpoints.

  • Instances without public IP addresses can access the Internet in one of two ways:

    • Instances without public IP addresses can route their traffic through a NAT gateway or a NAT instance to access the Internet. These instances use the public IP address of the NAT gateway or NAT instance to traverse the Internet.

    • For VPCs with a hardware VPN connection or Direct Connect connection, instances can route their Internet traffic down the virtual private gateway to your existing datacenter. From there, it can access the Internet via your existing egress points and network security/monitoring devices.

  • Currently, Amazon VPC supports five (5) IP address ranges, one (1) primary and four (4) secondary for IPv4. Each of these ranges can be between /28 (in CIDR notation) and /16 in size. The IP address ranges of your VPC should not overlap with the IP address ranges of your existing network. For IPv6, the VPC is a fixed size of /56 (in CIDR notation). A VPC can have both IPv4 and IPv6 CIDR blocks associated to it.

  • Elastic IP(EIP) addresses will only be reachable from the Internet (not over the VPN connection). Each EIP address must be associated with a unique private IP address on the instance. EIP addresses should only be used on instances in subnets configured to route their traffic directly to the Internet gateway. EIPs cannot be used on instances in subnets configured to use a NAT gateway or a NAT instance to access the Internet. This is applicable only for IPv4. Amazon VPCs do not support EIPs for IPv6 at this time.

  • Security groups in a VPC specify which traffic is allowed to or from an Amazon EC2 instance. Network ACLs operate at the subnet level and evaluate traffic entering and exiting a subnet. Network ACLs can be used to set both Allow and Deny rules. Network ACLs do not filter traffic between instances in the same subnet. In addition, network ACLs perform stateless filtering while security groups perform stateful filtering.

  • Stateful filtering tracks the origin of a request and can automatically allow the reply to the request to be returned to the originating computer. Stateless filtering, on the other hand, only examines the source or destination IP address and the destination port, ignoring whether the traffic is a new request or a reply to a request.

  • You can use the Amazon VPC Flow Logs feature to monitor the network traffic in your VPC.

  • When you launch an Amazon EC2 instance, you must specify the subnet in which to launch the instance. The instance will be launched in the Availability Zone associated with the specified subnet.

  • Instance launched in a VPC using an Amazon EBS-backed AMI maintains the same IP address when stopped and restarted. This is in contrast to similar instances launched outside a VPC, which get a new IP address. The IP addresses for any stopped instances in a subnet are considered unavailable.

  • A default VPC is a logically isolated virtual network in the AWS cloud that is automatically created for your AWS account the first time you provision Amazon EC2 resources. When you launch an instance without specifying a subnet-ID, your instance will be launched in your default VPC.

  • After your account has been configured for a default VPC, all future resource launches, including instances launched via Auto Scaling, will be placed in your default VPC.

  • Network interfaces can only be attached to instances residing in the same Availability Zone. Network interfaces can only be attached to instances in the same VPC as the interface.

  • Yes. Peering connections can be created with VPCs in different regions. Inter-region VPC peering is available globally in all commercial regions (excluding China).

  • No. Peered VPCs must have non-overlapping IP ranges.

  • No. “Edge to Edge routing” isn’t supported in Amazon VPC.

  • No. Traffic between instances in peered VPCs remains private and isolated – similar to how traffic between two instances in the same VPC is private and isolated.

  • Transitive peering relationships are not supported.

  • Network Load Balancers, AWS PrivateLink and Elastic File System cannot be used over Inter-Region VPC Peering.

  • Amazon Virtual Private Cloud (VPC) ClassicLink allows EC2 instances in the EC2-Classic platform to communicate with instances in a VPC using private IP addresses.

  • The EC2-Classic instance does not become a member of the VPC. It becomes a member of the VPC Security Group that was associated with the instance. All the rules and references to the VPC Security Group apply to communication between instances in EC2-Classic instance and resources within the VPC.

  • AWS PrivateLink enables customers to access services hosted on AWS in a highly available and scalable manner, while keeping all the network traffic within the AWS network.

  • As a service user, you will need to create interface type VPC endpoints for services that are powered by PrivateLink. These service endpoints will appear as Elastic Network Interfaces (ENIs) with private IPs in your VPCs. Once these endpoints are created, any traffic destined to these IPs will get privately routed to the corresponding AWS services. As a service owner, you can onboard your service to AWS PrivateLink by establishing a Network Load Balancer (NLB) to front your service and create a PrivateLink service to register with the NLB. Your customers will be able to establish endpoints within their VPC to connect to your service after you whitelisted their accounts and IAM roles.

  • Bring Your Own IP (BYOIP) enables customers to move all or part of their existing publicly routable IPv4 address space to AWS for use with their AWS resources. Customers will continue to own the IP range, however, AWS will take over its advertisement on the internet. Customers can create Elastic IPs from the IP space they bring to AWS and use them with EC2 instances, NAT Gateways, and Network Load Balancers.

  • You can bring a maximum of five IP ranges to your account.

Reference: Amazon VPC FAQs